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The Architecture of Kosovo dates back to the Neolithic Period and includes the Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages, Antiquity and the Medieval period. It has been influenced by the presence of different civilizations and religions as evidenced by the structures which have survived to this day. Local builders have combined building techniques of conquering empires with the materials at hand and the existing conditions to develop their own varieties of dwellings.
The Monasteries and Churches from the 14th century represent the Serbian Orthodox legacy. Architectural heritage from the Ottoman Period includes mosques and hamams from the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. Other historical architectural structures of interest include kullas from the 18th and 19th centuries as well as a number of bridges, urban centers and fortresses. While some vernacular buildings are not considered important in their own right, taken together they are of considerable interest. During the 1999 conflict in Kosovo, many buildings that represent this heritage were destroyed or damaged. In the Dukagjini region, at least 500 kullas were attacked, and most of them destroyed or otherwise damaged.
During the 1990s and thereafter, thousands of illegal buildings have been built in Kosovo. Rexhep Luci, the urban planner of Pristina who started an initiative to face this problem was killed in September 2000.
Ancient Ulpiana was a settlement of religious and cultural importance in the Roman Empire, that was active in from the 1st to 7th centuries. Destroyed in an earthquake in 518, the settlement was later rebuilt by the Emperor Justinian I. The city had a sustainable urban scheme typical of a Roman city in terms of street layout and water supply. It also had 3 meter thick city walls with watch towers and 5 meter wide castle gates. Apart from Ulpiana, another notable city from the Roman Period is the Municipium Dardanorum. Among the remaining sites from this city are the Forum (Roman), the Basilica, the temple and other buildings.
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